Hi Wiki surfer, I am going to describe how to create a custom control in wxPython. In this article's respect, custom control means "owner-drawn".
Even if wxPython ships with a huge number of available widgets, sometimes there is the need to create a new control that performs a particular action or simply looks nicer/more modern in our opinion. That being said, the first place to look at in order to familiarize with custom control design is surely wx.lib, a directory in the wxPython installation tree which contains a large number of owner-drawn widgets.
Once we have decided how our widget should roughly look like and which actions it should perform, the first question that should arise is: "my control should be a subclass of what?". In wxWidgets, using C++, you can simply derive your custom class from wx.Control, wx.Panel, wx.Window and so on. However, you may want to deny your personalized widget to accept focus, or do some particular action in methods like TransferDataFromWindow. Moreover, if your widget has to be managed by a sizer, you need to be able to override methods like DoGetBestSize.
Well, wxPython provides a set of wxPy classes, like wx.PyControl, wx.PyPanel, wx.PyWindow and so on, which are just like their wxWidgets counterparts except they allow some of the more common C++ virtual methods to be overridden in Python derived classes. If you navigate through the wx.lib directory, you will see widgets derived from wx.PyControl (stattext.py), wx.PyPanel (buttonpanel.py), wx.PyScrolledWindow (customtreectrl.py).
Creating The Widget
Ok, let's imagine I have decided that I want a new and cool wx.CheckBox. I would like this new widget to have a nice checked/unchecked bitmap, and I will take care of drawing it from scratch, handling mouse events, providing it with keyboard support and much more. Obviously, a custom wx.CheckBox is composed by a bitmap (which represent the checked/unchecked state) and a label right to it. I am assuming that I already have 4 bitmaps to handle all the possible state combinations of this particular wx.CheckBox, namely:
In the complete source code I will provide, together with a demo, the enabled-state icon are included; the disabled ones are created on the fly using pure Python/wxPython methods.
So, let's start with some code, basically the initialization, and I will try to explain what I am doing.
1 import wx 2 3 class CustomCheckBox(wx.PyControl): 4 """ 5 A custom class that replicates some of the functionality of wx.CheckBox, 6 while being completely owner-drawn with a nice check bitmaps. 7 """ 8 9 def __init__(self, parent, id=wx.ID_ANY, label="", pos=wx.DefaultPosition, 10 size=wx.DefaultSize, style=wx.NO_BORDER, validator=wx.DefaultValidator, 11 name="CustomCheckBox"): 12 """ 13 Default class constructor. 14 15 @param parent: Parent window. Must not be None. 16 @param id: CustomCheckBox identifier. A value of -1 indicates a default value. 17 @param label: Text to be displayed next to the checkbox. 18 @param pos: CustomCheckBox position. If the position (-1, -1) is specified 19 then a default position is chosen. 20 @param size: CustomCheckBox size. If the default size (-1, -1) is specified 21 then a default size is chosen. 22 @param style: not used in this demo, CustomCheckBox has only 2 state 23 @param validator: Window validator. 24 @param name: Window name. 25 """ 26 27 # Ok, let's see why we have used wx.PyControl instead of wx.Control. 28 # Basically, wx.PyControl is just like its wxWidgets counterparts 29 # except that it allows some of the more common C++ virtual method 30 # to be overridden in Python derived class. For CustomCheckBox, we 31 # basically need to override DoGetBestSize and AcceptsFocusFromKeyboard 32 33 wx.PyControl.__init__(self, parent, id, pos, size, style, validator, name) 34 35 # Initialize our cool bitmaps 36 self.InitializeBitmaps() 37 38 # Initialize the focus pen colour/dashes, for faster drawing later 39 self.InitializeColours() 40 41 # By default, we start unchecked 42 self._checked = False 43 44 # Set the spacing between the check bitmap and the label to 3 by default. 45 # This can be changed using SetSpacing later. 46 self._spacing = 3 47 48 # I assume at the beginning we are not focused 49 self._hasFocus = False 50 51 # Ok, set the wx.PyControl label, its initial size (formerly known an 52 # SetBestFittingSize), and inherit the attributes from the standard 53 # wx.CheckBox 54 self.SetLabel(label) 55 self.SetInitialSize(size) 56 self.InheritAttributes() 57 58 # Bind the events related to our control: first of all, we use a 59 # combination of wx.BufferedPaintDC and an empty handler for 60 # wx.EVT_ERASE_BACKGROUND (see later) to reduce flicker 61 self.Bind(wx.EVT_PAINT, self.OnPaint) 62 self.Bind(wx.EVT_ERASE_BACKGROUND, self.OnEraseBackground) 63 64 # Then we want to monitor user clicks, so that we can switch our 65 # state between checked and unchecked 66 self.Bind(wx.EVT_LEFT_DOWN, self.OnMouseClick) 67 if wx.Platform == '__WXMSW__': 68 # MSW Sometimes does strange things... 69 self.Bind(wx.EVT_LEFT_DCLICK, self.OnMouseClick) 70 71 # We want also to react to keyboard keys, namely the 72 # space bar that can toggle our checked state 73 self.Bind(wx.EVT_KEY_UP, self.OnKeyUp) 74 75 # Then, we react to focus event, because we want to draw a small 76 # dotted rectangle around the text if we have focus 77 # This might be improved!!! 78 self.Bind(wx.EVT_SET_FOCUS, self.OnSetFocus) 79 self.Bind(wx.EVT_KILL_FOCUS, self.OnKillFocus)
Ok, excluding the easiest things like assigning the spacing, the check status and the checkbox label, the interesting things happen when we look at the event that I bound to CustomCheckBox. If you are going to draw your custom widget from scratch, my suggestion is to use the combination of wx.BufferedPaintDC and an empty event handler for the wx.EVT_ERASE_BACKGROUND event. wx.BufferedPaintDC is a subclass of wx.BufferedDC which can be used inside of an OnPaint() event handler. Just create an object of this class instead of wx.PaintDC and that's all you have to do to (mostly) avoid flicker.
Let's take a closer look at the wx.EVT_PAINT handler:
1 def OnPaint(self, event): 2 """ Handles the wx.EVT_PAINT event for CustomCheckBox. """ 3 4 # If you want to reduce flicker, a good starting point is to 5 # use wx.BufferedPaintDC. 6 dc = wx.BufferedPaintDC(self) 7 8 # It is advisable that you don't overcrowd the OnPaint event 9 # (or any other event) with a lot of code, so let's do the 10 # actual drawing in the Draw() method, passing the newly 11 # initialized wx.BufferedPaintDC 12 self.Draw(dc) 13 14 15 def Draw(self, dc): 16 """ 17 Actually performs the drawing operations, for the bitmap and 18 for the text, positioning them centered vertically. 19 """ 20 21 # Get the actual client size of ourselves 22 width, height = self.GetClientSize() 23 24 if not width or not height: 25 # Nothing to do, we still don't have dimensions! 26 return 27 28 # Initialize the wx.BufferedPaintDC, assigning a background 29 # colour and a foreground colour (to draw the text) 30 backColour = self.GetBackgroundColour() 31 backBrush = wx.Brush(backColour, wx.SOLID) 32 dc.SetBackground(backBrush) 33 dc.Clear() 34 35 if self.IsEnabled(): 36 dc.SetTextForeground(self.GetForegroundColour()) 37 else: 38 dc.SetTextForeground(wx.SystemSettings.GetColour(wx.SYS_COLOUR_GRAYTEXT)) 39 40 dc.SetFont(self.GetFont()) 41 42 # Get the text label for the checkbox, the associated check bitmap 43 # and the spacing between the check bitmap and the text 44 label = self.GetLabel() 45 bitmap = self.GetBitmap() 46 spacing = self.GetSpacing() 47 48 # Measure the text extent and get the check bitmap dimensions 49 textWidth, textHeight = dc.GetTextExtent(label) 50 bitmapWidth, bitmapHeight = bitmap.GetWidth(), bitmap.GetHeight() 51 52 # Position the bitmap centered vertically 53 bitmapXpos = 0 54 bitmapYpos = (height - bitmapHeight)/2 55 56 # Position the text centered vertically 57 textXpos = bitmapWidth + spacing 58 textYpos = (height - textHeight)/2 59 60 # Draw the bitmap on the DC 61 dc.DrawBitmap(bitmap, bitmapXpos, bitmapYpos, True) 62 63 # Draw the text 64 dc.DrawText(label, textXpos, textYpos) 65 66 # Let's see if we have keyboard focus and, if this is the case, 67 # we draw a dotted rectangle around the text (Windows behavior, 68 # I don't know on other platforms...) 69 if self.HasFocus(): 70 # Yes, we are focused! So, now, use a transparent brush with 71 # a dotted black pen to draw a rectangle around the text 72 dc.SetBrush(wx.TRANSPARENT_BRUSH) 73 dc.SetPen(self._focusIndPen) 74 dc.DrawRectangle(textXpos, textYpos, textWidth, textHeight) 75 76 77 def OnEraseBackground(self, event): 78 """ Handles the wx.EVT_ERASE_BACKGROUND event for CustomCheckBox. """ 79 80 # This is intentionally empty, because we are using the combination 81 # of wx.BufferedPaintDC + an empty OnEraseBackground event to 82 # reduce flicker 83 pass
What did I do? Well, I have just asked the control to provide its width and height, the suitable check bitmap (depending on the control state), and then I simply positioned the bitmap centered vertically, the text beside it. In case the custom widget has focus from keyboard, I draw a thin dotted rectangle around the checkbox label. You surely have noted that the method OnEraseBackground() is empty.
Our custom control is now perfectly drawn, but we still don't know what to do to react to mouse and keyboard events. What we want the control to do is just to change its state (checked/unchecked) when the user click with the left mouse button or when he hits the spacebar and we have keyboard focus. About mouse events:
1 def OnMouseClick(self, event): 2 """ Handles the wx.EVT_LEFT_DOWN event for CustomCheckBox. """ 3 4 if not self.IsEnabled(): 5 # Nothing to do, we are disabled 6 return 7 8 self.SendCheckBoxEvent() 9 event.Skip() 10 11 12 def SendCheckBoxEvent(self): 13 """ Actually sends the wx.wxEVT_COMMAND_CHECKBOX_CLICKED event. """ 14 15 # This part of the code may be reduced to a 3-liner code 16 # but it is kept for better understanding the event handling. 17 # If you can, however, avoid code duplication; in this case, 18 # I could have done: 19 # 20 # self._checked = not self.IsChecked() 21 # checkEvent = wx.CommandEvent(wx.wxEVT_COMMAND_CHECKBOX_CLICKED, 22 # self.GetId()) 23 # checkEvent.SetInt(int(self._checked)) 24 if self.IsChecked(): 25 26 # We were checked, so we should become unchecked 27 self._checked = False 28 29 # Fire a wx.CommandEvent: this generates a 30 # wx.wxEVT_COMMAND_CHECKBOX_CLICKED event that can be caught by the 31 # developer by doing something like: 32 # MyCheckBox.Bind(wx.EVT_CHECKBOX, self.OnCheckBox) 33 checkEvent = wx.CommandEvent(wx.wxEVT_COMMAND_CHECKBOX_CLICKED, 34 self.GetId()) 35 36 # Set the integer event value to 0 (we are switching to unchecked state) 37 checkEvent.SetInt(0) 38 39 else: 40 41 # We were unchecked, so we should become checked 42 self._checked = True 43 44 checkEvent = wx.CommandEvent(wx.wxEVT_COMMAND_CHECKBOX_CLICKED, 45 self.GetId()) 46 47 # Set the integer event value to 1 (we are switching to checked state) 48 checkEvent.SetInt(1) 49 50 # Set the originating object for the event (ourselves) 51 checkEvent.SetEventObject(self) 52 53 # Watch for a possible listener of this event that will catch it and 54 # eventually process it 55 self.GetEventHandler().ProcessEvent(checkEvent) 56 57 # Refresh ourselves: the bitmap has changed 58 self.Refresh()
As you can see, the procedure is quite simple: wxPython detects the mouse click and call the event handler. We just query the status of our control (checked/unchecked), and we fire a wx.wxEVT_COMMAND_CHECKBOX_CLICKED, assign the event value based on the control state, and watch for a possible listener of this event (look at the demo, it is very simple).
Now, for keyboard event handling:
Here, we simply check if the user has pressed the spacebar. In this case, we call SendCheckBoxEvent which actually fires the event.
To complete the event handling review, let's look at the focus events, which are quite simple:
1 def OnSetFocus(self, event): 2 """ Handles the wx.EVT_SET_FOCUS event for CustomCheckBox. """ 3 4 self._hasFocus = True 5 6 # We got focus, and we want a dotted rectangle to be painted 7 # around the checkbox label, so we refresh ourselves 8 self.Refresh() 9 10 def OnKillFocus(self, event): 11 """ Handles the wx.EVT_KILL_FOCUS event for CustomCheckBox. """ 12 13 self._hasFocus = False 14 15 # We lost focus, and we want a dotted rectangle to be cleared 16 # around the checkbox label, so we refresh ourselves 17 self.Refresh()
Nothing really special here, we just redraw ourselves when the focus event is fired because we either want to paint a dotted focus rectangle (we have focus) or we want to remove it (we lost focus).
The only important things that are now missing are the overridden base class virtual methods, the ones that make wxPy controls so special. In order to behave correctly (in my opinion), CustomCheckBox needs to override the following methods:
1 def AcceptsFocusFromKeyboard(self): 2 """Overridden base class virtual.""" 3 4 # We can accept focus from keyboard, obviously 5 return True 6 7 8 def AcceptsFocus(self): 9 """ Overridden base class virtual. """ 10 11 # It seems to me that wx.CheckBox does not accept focus with mouse 12 # but please correct me if I am wrong! 13 return False 14 15 def GetDefaultAttributes(self): 16 """ 17 Overridden base class virtual. By default we should use 18 the same font/colour attributes as the native wx.CheckBox. 19 """ 20 21 return wx.CheckBox.GetClassDefaultAttributes() 22 23 def ShouldInheritColours(self): 24 """ 25 Overridden base class virtual. If the parent has non-default 26 colours then we want this control to inherit them. 27 """ 28 29 return True
And, last but not least, the most fundamental one, DoGetBestSize: you need to override it if you want your control to be correctly managed by sizers:
1 def DoGetBestSize(self): 2 """ 3 Overridden base class virtual. Determines the best size of the control 4 based on the label size, the bitmap size and the current font. 5 """ 6 7 # Retrieve our properties: the text label, the font and the check 8 # bitmap 9 label = self.GetLabel() 10 font = self.GetFont() 11 bitmap = self.GetBitmap() 12 13 if not font: 14 # No font defined? So use the default GUI font provided by the system 15 font = wx.SystemSettings.GetFont(wx.SYS_DEFAULT_GUI_FONT) 16 17 # Set up a wx.ClientDC. When you don't have a dc available (almost 18 # always you don't have it if you are not inside a wx.EVT_PAINT event), 19 # use a wx.ClientDC (or a wx.MemoryDC) to measure text extents 20 dc = wx.ClientDC(self) 21 dc.SetFont(font) 22 23 # Measure our label 24 textWidth, textHeight = dc.GetTextExtent(label) 25 26 # Retrieve the check bitmap dimensions 27 bitmapWidth, bitmapHeight = bitmap.GetWidth(), bitmap.GetHeight() 28 29 # Get the spacing between the check bitmap and the text 30 spacing = self.GetSpacing() 31 32 # Ok, we're almost done: the total width of the control is simply 33 # the sum of the bitmap width, the spacing and the text width, 34 # while the height is the maximum value between the text width and 35 # the bitmap width 36 totalWidth = bitmapWidth + spacing + textWidth 37 totalHeight = max(textHeight, bitmapHeight) 38 39 best = wx.Size(totalWidth, totalHeight) 40 41 # Cache the best size so it doesn't need to be calculated again, 42 # at least until some properties of the window change 43 self.CacheBestSize(best) 44 45 return best
In this method, I simply initialize a wx.ClientDC, and I use GetTextExtent to calculate the text extent of the checkbox label. Then, the total width of the control is simply the text width plus the spacing plus the bitmap width, while the total height is simply the maximum between the text height and the bitmap height. If you correctly implement the DoGetBestSize method, your control will be correctly laid out by sizers.
Ok, if you followed me till now, it means you have a lot of spare time
What's still missing? Oh, a couple of methods typical for wx.CheckBox, but nothing special:
1 def GetValue(self): 2 """ 3 Returns the state of CustomCheckBox, True if checked, False 4 otherwise. 5 """ 6 7 return self._checked 8 9 def IsChecked(self): 10 """ 11 This is just a maybe more readable synonym for GetValue: just as the 12 latter, it returns True if the CustomCheckBox is checked and False 13 otherwise. 14 """ 15 16 return self._checked 17 18 def SetValue(self, state): 19 """ 20 Sets the CustomCheckBox to the given state. This does not cause a 21 wx.wxEVT_COMMAND_CHECKBOX_CLICKED event to get emitted. 22 """ 23 24 self._checked = state 25 26 # Refresh ourselves: the bitmap has changed 27 self.Refresh()
We're done. Our custom control is ready to be tested with a demo . You can find the source code, demo and the icons in this attachment:
The custom control we designed is very simple, but I hope to have given enough information on how you can actually build your custom widget. As always, if you got new ideas about new widgets, please contact me
For the wxPython gurus: Please correct my sluggishness in coding, there might be something I have overlooked or misinterpreted. And please don't shoot me if you think that the code is not "Pythonic" (whatever that means).
I hope it's clear that to create a truly custom control all the visible features must not only be drawn, but their positions be calculated first. Sizers can only be used with predefined controls! Since this custom control has only two visible items, this is not very difficult to do. DCs are used to copy bitmaps onto a container control such as a Panel. This is easy to do by using dc.DrawBitmap() function. Use of DrawBitmap() relieves the designer from having to use dc.Blit() which requires another dc tool be created just for the bitmap, itself.
Since Andrea has done the bulk of the hard work, I've taken a shot at improving the design a bit. The most obvious problem, to me, is that CustomCheckBox doesn't vertically auto-center its text label properly when the font is changed in any way. Large text labels get cut off at the bottom and right sides because the control doesn't adjust its own size properly. Perhaps there's something that I don't yet know about resizing a wx.PyControl. The mouse-over dotted outline doesn't work at all, at least not on MS Windows 7. The entire control's background color should change in background color, not just the text label's background.Finally, only the actual checkbox area of the control should accept clicks, not the entire control.
After some tweaks of Andrea's original code to get the control to resize itself I noticed that the control would redraw itself properly only when I manually changed the size of the top-level Frame. I've used a simple "hack" that works by applying that principle to "bump" the Frame's (or wx.Dialog's) size and then restore it. This repaints the CustomCheckBoxMod control, but also gets all the demo app's sizers to adjust to any new text label font size change. This hack fails if the app Frame is maximized because resizes are ignored (on MSW, at least).
1 def Redraw( self ) : 2 """ 3 Resizing and redrawing of self. This algorithm is a "hack" ! 4 This hack fails if the top level Frame or Dialog is maximized. 5 """ 6 7 # SetInitialSize() acts like "SetSize()" 8 self.InvalidateBestSize() 9 self.SetInitialSize( self.FindMinDimensions() ) # self.FindMinDimensions() call sets self.minWid, self.minHgt 10 11 # Force re-layout of self. HACK ! HACK ! HACK ! 12 # There really must be a better way, not just a different way 13 # to accomplish auto-resizing and auto-repainting. I wonder what that is... 14 topParent = self.GetTopLevelParent() 15 topWid, topHgt = topParent.GetClientSize() 16 17 topParent.SetClientSize( (topWid-1, topHgt) ) # "Bump" the top level Frame size 18 topParent.SetClientSize( (topWid, topHgt) ) # Reset the size 19 20 self.Refresh() # Repaint self. 21 22 #end def
It may very well be possible that this new control misbehaves on *nix and Mac platforms - I can't test that myself, so let me know!
RDP - pascor(at)verizon(dot)net 2011-09-01
Except in special circumstances controls should not force their parents to resize, or even to redraw. This is a poor design and goes contrary with how the rest of wx works. Instead, when something in the control changes that would change its best size then it should simply call self.InvalidateBestSize, self.Refresh if needed, and leave it up to the programmer to trigger a relayout or a resize of the parent or other windows further up the containment hierarchy. --RobinDunn
It's more than just a shame that a wx custom control doesn't have the ability auto-manage itself without resorting to 1) using the top-level window size bump hack, or 2) putting the burden on the app designer to monitor the custom control's events (How ?!) and force a relayout and redraw in yet another app event handler. This seems to be an important underlying wxWidgets omission, not wxPython's. -- Ray Pasco
There's nothing to monitor. The programmer writes the code that does someWidget.SetLabel or someWidget.SetFont or whatever, and if that will make a difference to the layout that is managing the position and size of someWidget then he just needs to also add a call to self.Layout() or perhaps self.Parent.Layout() at the same time. If the layout is more complex then more may need to be done, or if the programmer wants the top-level parent to resize then he can do something like call its Fit() method. The point is that the widget can't know all the situations it will be used in nor if changes in its own best size should always cause a relayout of the parent or a Fit of the top-level grandparent or even something totally different. If a widget is going to be a one-off and only used in one place and is never ever going to be used anywhere else, including in some other window in the same application, the sure, it can do whatever the hell it wants to its parents or other widgets that are not even related to it. But if you want a well behaved general purpose widget that can be used virtually anywhere in your own code or used by other developers, just like a wx.Button can be, then it just should not do those types of things. --RobinDunn
Many thanks for the info. It has been used in Fonty Python to create a custom text label control. You rule \d